SDGs Index | Voluntary National Review Nigeria 2021

2030 Agenda Nigeria performance 

The basic conceptional structure of SDGs is specific developmental goals that all countries, including Nigeria, are to endorse and include in their national development plans. The SDGs ranking index / SDGs index (Voluntary National Review) shows the Nigeria SDGs progress.

[bctt tweet=”The aim is that by the year 2030, all countries implementing the Sustainable Development Goals would have put an end to severe poverty, inequalities, discrimination and thereby embrace share prosperity, good health and economic growth. “]

Nigeria is currently struggling to implement the SDGs in its national strategies due to some factors that are affecting its performance. 

 The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) consist of seventeen sustainable development goals. By the year 2030, each of the seventeen sustainable goals is expected to be attained by every country globally.

SDGs Index and Nigeria performance index

SDG-1 (No Poverty): 

Population living below the national poverty line is a significant challenge to SDG-1. While social protection and poverty headcount are the major challenges to SDG-1.

[bctt tweet=”In 2015, the population covered by social protection was at 5.2. In the year 2020, Nigeria Poverty Headcount Ratio (PHR) stood at $1.90/day, and the trend analysis shows that the rate is decreasing.”]

Rapid population growth poses a major challenge to Nigeria strive to end extreme poverty by year 2030. 

SDG-2 (Zero or End Hunger):

SDG-2 is another major challenge that Nigeria is facing in its implementation of 2030 SDG Agenda. 

Fertiliser consumption and undernourishment pose major challenges to Nigeria in achieving the goals of end hunger.  

In 2016, fertiliser consumption (kg per hectare of arable land) stood at 5.5 and the trend is decreasing. 

Stunting in children below 5 years old had been a major challenge, but Nigeria is on track in curbing it. 

However, the wasting in the children below 5 years old is increasing below 50 of the growth rate needed to achieve the SDG-2 by 2030. 

SDG-3 (Good Health and Wellbeing):

Unequal access to quality health care and basic infrastructure has resulted in major challenges in the following areas: 

  • Maternal mortality rate (per 100,000 live births) at 917. 
  • Births attended by skilled health staff at 40.3.
  • Neonatal mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) at 36.
  • Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000 live births) at 119.9. 
  • Incidence of tuberculosis (per 100,000 population) at 219.
  • Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1,000 adolescent females aged 15 to 19) at 107.3.
  • Universal health coverage (UHC) index of service coverage. 

These had been major challenges in Nigeria, between the year 2016 to 2018, and will likely continue because the trends are stagnating. 

However, Malaria mortality rate (per 100,000 population) at 48.9 in year 2018 and the Coverage of Preventive Chemotherapy for Neglected Tropical Diseases at 64.6 in the same year, indicate a trend that shows Nigeria is on track in maintaining SDG-3 achievement. 

SDG-4 (Quality Education): 

The effect of global COVID-19 pandemic on education in Nigeria, poses risks of compromising efforts made in education so far.  

Net primary enrollment rate at 64.1 in 2010 was a significant challenge quality education. 

The average years of schooling was also a significant challenge in year 2017 at 6.2. This is likely to continue because the trend is stagnating.

In 2018, Literacy rate (% of population aged 15 to 24) was at 75.0. Trend analysis is not possible due to unavailability of data. 

SDG-5 (Gender Equality): 

Mistreatment in law and government policies are major causes of gender inequality in Nigeria. Inequality and discrimination often result in people been left behind. 

Ratio of female-to-male mean years of education received at 69.7 in 2018 is stagnantly increasing below 50% of the growth rate needed to achieve the SDG-5 by year 2030. 

Seats held by women in National Parliament is at 3.6 in 2020. Unfortunately, Nigeria is moving in the wrong in direction towards achieving equal female-to-male representative in the National Parliament.   

Also, women in ministerial positions at 8.0 in 2019 is critically showing no sign of improvement. 

However, Nigeria is maintaining SDG achievement in the ratio of female-to-male labor force participation rate at 84.9 in 2019. Since then, Nigeria is still on track moving forward. 

SDG-6 (Clean water and Sanitation): 

Population of people using at least basic sanitation services in Nigeria is at 39.2 in 2017. According to the trend analysis, the situation is not going to improve soon, because it is only stagnantly progressing. People are not favourably dispose to using sanitation services.

Whereas, the population of people using at least basic drinking water services in Nigeria is at 71.4 in 2017. The situation is trending moderately upward, which indicates that Nigeria is improving on the basic use of drinking water services. 

In 2013, scarce water consumption embodied in imports (m3/capita) was at 0.7. Trend analysis indicates that Nigeria is on track in maintaining SDG-6 achievement. 

SDG-7 (Affordable and Clean Energy): 

Population in Nigeria with access to clean fuels and technology for cooking is at 4.9 in year 2016. 

This is a major challenge to Nigeria, due to persistent poverty. Unless, poverty is significantly reduced, the trend is not showing any sign of improving, it has remained stagnant. 

Yet, in year 2017, consumer affordability of electricity (worst 0–100 best) was at 94. The challenge still remain, it has not changed.  

In year 2017, the population of Nigeria with access to electricity was at 54.4. Along the years, it has been getting worse. Unless, drastic step is taken by the Government, more people would be left behind.  

SDG-8 (Decent work and Economic Growth): 

Adults with an account at a bank or other financial institution or with a mobile-money-service provider (% of population aged 15 or over) in Nigeria was a major challenge at 39.7 in 2017. The number of bankable adults are consequently decreasing. 

GDP growth per capita 5-year average stood at -0.6 in 2018. This was a major challenge to economic growth.. 

But, in year 2020, Employment-to-population ratio was at 48.5. There was a diminishing trend to indicate that employment-to-population poses a significant challenge to Nigeria in achieving economic growth by year 2030. 

Whereas, starting a Business score stood at 86.2 the same year. This was a great achievement to Nigeria in achieving economic growth. 

Starting a business in Nigeria is becoming increasingly achievable.. 

SDG-9 (Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure): 

Expenditure on research and development was 0.2 in 2007. This was a major challenge in accomplishing SDG-9 in Nigeria. 

Infrastructure score on the other hand was a significant challenge to SDG-9 at 39.7 in 2017. The trend was moderately improving towards achieving SDG-9. 

 Population of people using the internet is also a significant challenge to SDG-9. At 42 in 2017, trend analysis indicates a progressive improvement towards achieving SDG-9. 

Scientific and technical journal articles (per 1,000 population) and Mobile broadband subscriptions (per 100 population) are major challenges towards achieving SDG-9. 

While writing of scientific and technical journal per 1,000 population has no data to indicates its value, mobile broadband subscription per 

100 population was moderately improving at 30.7 in 2018. 

SDG-10 (Reduced Inequality): 

Gini Coefficient adjusted for top income and  Palma ratio have a significant challenge on SDG-10, unfortunately, there is no statistic to show if Nigeria has eventually achieve any value in reducing inequality. 

SDG-11 (Sustainable Cities and Communities): 

The percentage of urban community living in slums, the percentage of community that have access to improved water source, and piped, are major challenges to achieving SDG-11. 

At 53.9 in 2016, the percentage of urban community living in slum was moderately improving. Whereas, the percentage of communities that have access to improved water we decreasing greatly at 14.6 in 2017.

Percentage of people who are contented with public transport in 2018 were at 64.8. This challenge remain, though it is progressively improving. 

SDG-12 (Responsible Consumption and Production): 

Nigeria has achieved considerably in the implementation of SDG-12. Especially in the following areas: 

  • Municipal solid waste (kg/capita/day)  
  • Electronic waste (kg/capita)   
  • Production-based SO2  emissions (kg/capita)  
  • SO2  emissions embodied in imports (kg/capita). 

SDG-13 (Climate Action): 

Energy-related CO2  emissions (tCO2/capita) and CO2  emissions embodied in imports (tCO2/capita) had been achieved in 2017 and 2015 respectively. The trend also indicates that Nigeria is on track in maintaining the SDGs achieved.

People affected by climate-related disasters (per 100,000 population) and CO2  emissions embodied in fossil fuel exports (kg/capita) are Challenge remain.

SDG-14 (Life Below Water): 

The implementation to curb the catching of fish from overexploited or collapsed stocks had been achieved at 14.2 in 2014, while the implementation to curb the catch of fish by trawling is still a challenge that remain.

Marine biodiversity threats embodied in imports (per million population) had been curb in year 2018. 

Ocean Health Index: Clean  Waters score  is a major challenge to SDG-14 at 37.1 in 2019. Trend analysis shows that the value is decreasing. 

SDG-15 (Life on Land): 

The effort of Nigeria government to protect average terrestrial areas important to biodiversity was achieved in 2018 at 79.6. And the sustainance of the achieved SDG is progressing. 

Nigeria also achieved in 2018 the implementation to curb terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity threats comprised in imports (per million population). 

Permanent deforestation (% of forest area, 5-year average) at 0.5 in 2018 was a significant challenge to achieving SDG-15. 

Species on red list of survival still remain a challenge in 2019, nonetheless the trend analysis indicates a stagnant increase. 

SDG-16 (Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions):

The following are major challenge facing the implementation of SDG-16: 

  • Homicides (per 100,000 population) 
  • Conflict-related deaths (per 100,000 population)  
  • Percentage of population who feel safe walking alone at night in   the city or area where they live.
  • Children involved in child labor (% of population aged 5 to 14)
  • Property Rights
  • Access to justice 
  • Corruption Perception Index  
  • Public Sector Accountability and  Transparency
  • Birth registrations with civil authority (% of children under age 5) 
  • Press Freedom Index

SDG-17 (Partnerships for the Goals): 

Nigeria institutions can partner in the following areas in order to achieve the goals: 

  • Tax revenue
  • Government spending on health and education
  • Level of customs duties on imports Value  
  • Visa Requirement 
  • Governmental Statistical Capacity

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